Each of the parts of the computer CPU (central processing unit) has a specific function to perform. The components work in unison, and collectively, they formulate the “intelligence” behind the computer. The central processing unit reads instruction sets, interprets them, executes the instructions and sends out results. The CPU has the “brains” to perform computations and convey information from one area to another. It makes decisions, and determines the next step to take, based on the conclusions it makes.


The main printed circuit board in a computer is known as the Motherboard. It is also known as System Board, Main Board or Printed Wired Board (PWB). It also sometimes abbreviated or shortened to mobo. Attached to it, we have numerous motherboard components that are crucial in the functioning of the computer.


CPU- Central Processing Unit

It is also known as the microprocessor or the processor. It is the brain of the computer, and it is responsible for fetching, decoding and executing program instructions as well as performing mathematical and logical calculations.


Main Memory / Random Access Memory (RAM)

Random access memory or RAMmost commonly refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data when you are working with your computer to enhance the computer performance. In other words, it is the working place of your computer where active programs and data are loaded so that any time time the processor requres them, it doesn’t have to fetch them from the hard disk which will take a longer access time.


BIOS- Basic Input Output System

BIOS is a term that stands for basic input/output system, which consists of low-level software that controls the system hardware and acts as an interface between the operating system and the hardware. Most people know the term BIOS by another name—device drivers, or justdrivers. In other words, the BIOS is drivers, meaning all of them. BIOS is essentially the link between hardware and software in a system.

CMOS-Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

Motherboards also include a small separate block of memory made from CMOS RAM chips which is kept alive by a battery (known as a CMOS battery) even when the PC’s power is off. This prevents reconfiguration when the PC is powered on.

CMOS devices require very little power to operate.

The CMOS RAM is used to store basic Information about the PC’s configuration e.g.

  • Floppy disk and hard disk drive types
  • CPU
  • RAM size
  • Date and time
  • Serial and parallel port information
  • Plug and Play information
  • Power Saving settings

Cache Memory

It is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passing it to the processor on demand.

Expansion Buses
An input/output pathway from the CPU to peripheral devices typically made up of a series of slots on the motherboard. Expansion boards (cards) plug into the bus. PCI is the common expansion bus in a PC and other hardware platforms. Buses carry signals, such as data; memory addresses, power and control signals from component to component.


A chipset is a group of small circuits that coordinate the flow of data to and from key components of a PC. This includes the CPU itself, the main memory, the secondary cache and any devices situated on the buses. The chipset also controls data flow to and from hard disks, and other devices connected to the IDE channels. A computer has got two main chipsets:-

  • The NorthBridge (also called the memory controller) is in charge of controlling transfers between the processor and the RAM, which is way it is located physically near the processor. It is sometimes called the GMCH, forGraphic and Memory Controller Hub.
  • The SouthBridge (also called the input/output controller or expansion controller) handles communications between peripheral devices. It is also called the ICH (I/O Controller Hub). The tem bridge is generally used to designate a component which connects two buses.